In 2015, the Congressional Research Service concluded that „NAFTA`s overall net impact on the U.S. economy appears to be relatively small, not least because trade with Canada and Mexico accounts for a small percentage of U.S. GDP. However, there have been adjustment costs for workers and businesses as the three countries have prepared for more open trade and investment between their economies. The report also estimated that nafta has added $80 billion to the U.S. economy since its inception, a 0.5% increase in U.S. GDP.  In 2008, Canadian exports to the United States and Mexico totaled $381.3 billion and imports totaled $245.1 billion.  According to a 2004 paper by University of Toronto economist Daniel Trefler, NAFTA provided Canada with a significant net benefit in 2003, with long-term productivity increasing by up to 15 per cent in the sectors that experienced the largest tariff reductions.  While the decline in low-productivity jobs has reduced employment (up to 12 per cent of existing jobs), these job losses have lasted less than a decade; Overall, unemployment has declined in Canada since the legislation was passed. Trefler commented on the compromise, saying that the crucial trade policy issue was „how free trade can be implemented in an industrialized economy so that the long-term benefits and short-term adjustment costs borne by workers and others are recognized.“  In the Chapter „Health and Plant Health Measures“ (SPS), the United States, Mexico and Canada agreed to strengthen disciplines for scientifically sound SPS measures, while ensuring that the parties respect their sovereign right to the protection of life, animals, plants and health.
The provisions provide for greater transparency in the development and implementation of SPS measures; Promoting scientific decision-making Improve certification, regionalization and equivalency processes Conducting system-based audits Improving the transparency of import controls; cooperation actions to improve the compatibility of the measures. The new agreement would establish a new mechanism for technical consultation between the parties to resolve the issues. The modernisation of the FREE trade agreement BETWEEN the EU and Mexico began to renegotiate in 2015. Since April 2020, negotiations have been completed with the two nations, which agree on revised terms.